Determinants of Job Satisfaction of Colleges of Education Lecturers: A Study of Nasarawa State College of Education, Akwanga

Rebecca I. Umaru1 , Danjuma A. Ombugus2

1Doctor, (Language Art Education), Department of Art And Social Science Education, Faculty Of Education, Nasarawa State University Keffi. Nigeria, 2Doctor, (Industrial Technical Education), Department of Technical Education, College of Education, Akwanga. Nasarawa State. Nigeria

Abstract

The main purpose of this study was to assess the level of job satisfaction among lecturers in College of Education, Akwanga. Nasarawa State. The study was guided by five research questions. Descriptive research design was adopted by the study. The population for the study consisted of 279 lecturers during the 2014/2015 academic session from the six schools of the college. A sample size of the population was taken from each school using simple random sampling technique to arrive at a sample size of 167 lecturers. A structured questionnaire divided into five sections was used for data collection. The questionnaire was face validated by five experts, three in the department of Industrial Technical Education and two in from the career unit the Faculty of Vocational Teachers Education all from the University of Nigeria Nsukka. A reliability coefficient of 0.78 was obtained from Cronbach Alpha reliability technique to ascertain the internal consistency of the questionnaire items. The questionnaires were administered by the researchers. Mean and standard deviation were utilized to analyze the data collected, while T-test statistics was used to test the hypothesis at 0.05 level of significant. Findings of the study revealed that regular salary payment, promotion opportunities, work environment, attainment of work goals, opportunity to growth and development among others are the determinants of job satisfaction of college of education lecturers. It was recommended that the college management should fulfill their financial obligations and make provisions for adequate facilities as this will improve lecturers’ commitment to work and job satisfaction for optimal performance.

Keywords: Determinants, College of education, Lecturers, Job satisfaction, Nasarawa state.

Citation | Rebecca I. Umaru; Danjuma A. Ombugus (2017). Determinants of Job Satisfaction of Colleges of Education Lecturers: A Study of Nasarawa State College of Education, Akwanga. Asian Business Research Journal, 2(1): 8-13.
History: Received: 19 December 2016Revised: 28 December 2016Accepted: 8 February 2017Published: 27 April 2017
Licensed: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License
Publisher: Asian Online Journal Publishing Group
Contribution/Acknowledgement: Both authors contributed to the conception and design of the study.
Funding: This study received no specific financial support.
Competing Interests: The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.
Transparency: The authors confirm that the manuscript is an honest, accurate, and transparent account of the study was reported; that no vital features of the study have been omitted; and that any discrepancies from the study as planned have been explained.
Ethical: This study follows all ethical practices during writing.

1. Introduction

Job satisfaction in Agu (2014) connote happiness and a state of well being as an outcome of need fulfillment derived from or enjoy in one’s job. A job in the context of this study means the work which one does and receives regular payment. Job satisfaction is the good feeling that you get when you have a job that you enjoy doing. In the field of organizational behavior, job satisfaction has been the most frequent studied variable. According to Wells (2011) the relevance of job satisfaction is very crucial to the growth of any education program around the globe. It probably ranks alongside professional knowledge, skills, competency, facilities and strategies as veritable determinants of educational success and performance. Earlier, Alaku (2011) encouraged researches in job satisfaction particularly among teachers in Nigeria. Findings from such researches the author believe might provide evidences that government could use in her policy formulation to improve teachers’ performances for improved educational success.

Locke and Lathan (2012) defined job satisfaction as a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from appraisal of one’s job experience. Job satisfaction is the result of an employee’s perception on how well the job provides those things that are viewed as important dimensions to the worker’s welfare. Hulin (2011) stated that job satisfaction is that which gives a worker a sense of achievement and success which is generally perceived to be directly linked to personal well being as well as productivity. Job satisfaction is an emotional response to a job situation, as such it cannot be seen, it can only be inferred and it is often determined how well outcomes meet or exceed expectations. It represents several related factors such as: the worker himself, salary, promotion opportunities, work environment, supervisory style and co-worker relationship. Armstrong (2012) concur that company policies, salary, co-worker relationship, supervisory/ management style and work environment were determinants of workers’ job satisfaction.

According to Oshegbemi (2010) organizations that have achieved their goals must have satisfied and happy staff in their workforce. Obwogi (2011) explained that for any College of Education to take off and achieve her goals, the College must depend on her capacity to attract, retain and maintain competent and satisfied staff into her employment. The College being an institution of higher learning that provides manpower needs to advance national development must itself be capable of ensuring adequate manpower planning and development. It should therefore not afford to neglect needs and essentials of her workforce welfare. College of Education Lecturers are currently facing many challenges in form of inadequate infrastructure; nonpayment of salaries; lack of enabling research environment ; disparity in salary and allowances which have resulted into industrial action by the lecturers over years. Inconsistent policy implementation between federal and state governments may as well affect lecturers’ level of job satisfaction (Ombugus, 2013). In many instances, academic programmes are distorted because management takes certain decisions without involving lecturers. This in turn creates additional work dissatisfaction.

The consequence of lack of job satisfaction in the college of education set-up is the shortage of competent and committed lecturers. Reports from the National Commission for Colleges of Education (2012) revealed that while the numbers of Colleges of Education are increasing, the numbers of qualified lecturers are not increasing proportionately. There has been constant mobility of these highly skilled persons from one college of education to another and to other public sectors for better remuneration and conducive working environments. Other factors that mitigate job satisfaction include management and leadership styles, non academic duty allowance, unclear rules and regulations in the personnel policies, excessive workload and poor communication with management members. The main purpose of this study therefore, was to identify determinants of job satisfaction of lecturers of College of Education Akwanga, Nasarawa State. Specifically, the study indentified the effects of salary; work environment; job security; autonomy of colleges of education and staff training on lecturers’ job satisfaction. The study was guided by five research questions: What is the effect of salary on lecturers’ job satisfaction? What is the effect of work environment on lecturers’ job satisfaction? What is the effect of job security on lecturers’ job satisfaction? What is the effect of autonomy of college of education on lecturers’ job satisfaction? What is the effect of staff training on lecturers’ job satisfaction?

This study is hinged on the motivator-hygiene theory also called “The two Factor Theory”. According to Herzberg (1989) this theory states that employees are motivated by internal values rather than values that are external to work. In other words, motivation to work is internally generated and is propelled by variables that are intrinsic to work which includes achievement, recognition, the nature of the work itself, responsibility, and advancement or growth. The most important motivator-hygiene theory factor that contributes to job satisfaction or organizational performance is inter-personal relationship. Mean-while responsibility and opportunities for promotion is ranked by Alaku (2011) as the important motivator factors that affect job satisfaction. Adeyemi (2010) concluded that job satisfaction is also related to motivation. Employers need to create and maintain a conducive and enjoyable working environment to motivate the employees.

Rosser (2012) pointed out that salary, retirement benefit and job security are important personal issues that affect job commitment and satisfaction of College of Education Lecturers. In Tettey (2008) dissatisfaction with salaries is one of the factors undermining the commitment of academics to their institutions and careers and consequently their decision to leave job. Okpara (2004) stated that providing conducive working environment could lead to higher organizational commitment through a variety of reasons. Stressful working environment results to low level of commitment and dissatisfaction. Good working conditions such as clean, attractive surroundings enable employees to perform their work smoothly and thus are likely to have a positive impact on Job Satisfaction. A study by Dockel (2003) found out that the general working conditions were significantly related to organizational commitment. Research studies have also found job security to be positively related to job satisfaction Ombugus (2013). The existence of job security is likely to boost employees’ perceptions of organizational support which would help to foster organizational commitment. Thus, it was hypothesized that there would be a positive relationship between satisfaction with job security and organization commitment. In Grunberg and Tapfield (2009) promotion and tenure are control variables of lecturers’ job satisfaction. The authors stated that promotion is a highly predictor of job satisfaction among college of Education Lecturers. Similarly, Bender and Heywood (2012) explained that tenured College Lecturers tend to have higher job satisfaction level than untenured lecturers.

In Chew (2004) autonomy refers to increased feelings of personal responsibility and the degree to which the job provides substantial freedom, independence and discretion to the individual to schedule work and determine the procedures use in carrying it out. Lecturers’ autonomy refers to their ability to decide work patterns, actively participate in major academic decision making to have work evaluated by professional peers and to be relatively free of bureaucratic regulations and restrictions (Daly, 2006). Employees expect to work in jobs that provide them with opportunities to be promoted to new and challenging positions. Chew (2004) strongly argued that people should not only be rewarded financially but they should also be offered opportunities to grow within the organization. Employees who feel stagnant in their position generally aren’t motivated and committed and in some cases quiet the job. Promotion offers opportunity for growth and is also one of the motivators which can be used to enhance retention. Research findings by Ukeje and Ugwuanyi (2011) have revealed that positive relationship exists between organizational commitment and training opportunities. On the basis of the above reviews, one can argue that the higher the employee gets satisfaction with each facet of the job, the greater the sense of commitment to the organization.

2. Methodology

The research design employed for the study is a descriptive survey research design. Sambo (2005) defined a survey as a description of a present state of affairs usually carried out through questionnaires; opinions and interviews. The study was conducted in College of Education, Akwanga, Nasarawa State. The population for the study was two hundred and seventy-nine lecturers as shown in Table 1 below:

Table-1. Population of Lecturers in the College during 2014/2015 Academic Session

S/No School No. of Lecturers
1. School of Education (SE) 68
2. School of Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) 20
3. School of Secondary Education – Art & Social Science Programmes (SSEASSP) 62
4. School of Secondary Education - Language Programme (SSELP) 35
5. School of Secondary Education – Science Programme (SSESP) 40
6. School of Secondary Education – Vocational & Technical Programmes (SSEVTEP) 54
Total 279

Source: Staff statistics office, college of education, Akwanga

The researchers used a simple random sampling technique to select 60% of the population from each school. A sample size of 167 Lecturers was utilized for the study. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. The questionnaire had five sections based on the purposes of the study. Mean and standard deviation were employed to analyze the data collected and answer the research questions using the real limit of the mean.

3. Results

Research Questions 1: What is the effect of salary on lecturers’ job satisfaction?

Table-2. Mean ratings of the lecturers on the effect of salary on job satisfaction N=167

S/No. Questionnaire Items SD Remark
1. Fulfillment of financial and motivational desires 3.62 1.33 Agreed
2. Affects job motivation 3.81 1.35 Agreed
3. Affects job commitment 4.04 1.62 Agreed
4. Affects job productivity 3.58 1.57 Agreed
5. Reduces absenteeism from work 4.03 1.47 Agreed
6. Reduces withdrawal from job 3.78 1.43 Agreed
= mean S.D = Standard deviation

The data in Table 2 revealed that the 6 items had their values ranged from 3.58 – 4.04 and were greater than 2.50. This indicated that the 6 items were affecting motivation, commitment and productivity among College Lecturers.The standard deviations ranged from 1.33 – 1.62 and are positive. This indicated that the respondents were not very far from the mean or one another in their responses. This helped to add value to the mean.

Research Question 2: What is the effect of work environment on Lecturers Job Satisfaction?

Table-3. Mean ratings of the Lecturers on the effect of work environment on Job SatisfactionN=167

S/No. Questionnaire Items SD Remark
7. Affects job commitment 4.33 1.72 Agreed
8. Affects motivation 2.16 1.04 Disagreed
9. Affects job efficiency 4.02 1.66 Agreed
10. Reduces physical/psychological stress 3.78 1.49 Agreed
11. Provision of adequate working facilities 3.96 1.36 Agreed
12. Good interpersonal relationship 2.23 1.11 Disagreed
13. Affects job productivity 2.35 1.07 Disagreed

Data in Table 3 revealed that items 7, 9, 10 and 11 had their mean values ranged from 3.78 – 4.33 and are above decision point of 2.5. This indicates that work environment affect job commitment, efficiency, psychological stress as well as provision of working facilities. Similarly, the data revealed that items 8, 12, and 13 had their mean values below decision point (2.50) indicating that work environment has less effect on job motivation, good interpersonal relation and productivity.

Research Question 3: What is the effect of job security on Lecturers job satisfaction

Table-4. Mean ratings of the Lecturers on the effect of job security on job satisfaction N=167

S/No. Questionnaire Items SD Remark
14. Decreases dismissal from work 3.68 1.59 Agreed
15. Affects job motivation 4.43 1.58 Agreed
16. Fosters job commitment 2.14 1.41 Disagreed
17. Increases the feeling of being lecturers 4.14 1.36 Agreed
18. Makes lecturers lazy 4.28 1.56 Agreed
19. Affects job efficiency 4.16 1.56 Agreed

In Table 4 above, the responses revealed that items 14, 15, 17, 18 and 19 had their mean values above the decision point of 2.50. This indicates that job security affects dismissal from work, job motivation, increases feeling of being a lecturer, while item 16 which is fosters job commitment does not affect job security with a mean value of 1.41 lower than 2.50.

Research Question 4: What is the effect of autonomy on lecturers’ job satisfaction?

Table-5. Mean ratings of the lecturers on the effect of autonomy on Job Satisfaction N=167

S/No. Questionnaire Items SD Remark
20. Affacts job commitment 4.72 1.78 Agreed
21. Affects job productivity 2.12 0.47 Disagreed
22. Offers opportunity for growth 1.87 0.39 Disagreed
23. Affects motivation 4.11 1.39 Agreed
24. Increases the feeling of personal belonging 3.96 1.35 Agreed
25. Affects job efficiency 3.88 1.54 Agreed

Results in Table 5 revealed that items 20, 23, 24, and 25 had mean values above 2.50. This indicates that autonomy affects job motivation, commitment, increases feeling of belonging and job efficiency, while items 21 and 22 had their mean values below decision point indicating that autonomy does not necessarily affects job productivity and opportunity for growth.

Research Question 5: What is the effect of staff training on lecturers’ job satisfaction?

Table-6. Mean ratings of lecturers on the effects of retraining on job satisfaction N=167

S/No. Questionnaire Items SD Remark
26. Overcomes deficiencies in job performance 3.22 1.78 Agreed
27. Production of quality and quantity of human resources 3.62 1.47 Agreed
28. Enhances job retention 2.22 1.46 Disagreed
29. Enhances job productivity 4.11 1.53 Agreed
30. Affects job commitment 4.11 1.39 Agreed
31. Promote job motivation 3.96 1.36 Agreed
32. Achievement of organizational goal 3.88 1.54 Agreed
33. Promotes personal and professional growth 3.90 1.31 Agreed

From Table 6 the results revealed items 26, 27, 29, 30, 31, 32, and 33 with mean values higher than decision point. By implication, staff training improves job deficiencies, productivity, commitment and promotes personal and professional growth. On the other hand, item 28 had a mean value lower than the decision point, indicating that staff training does not affect retention of College Lecturers. The standard deviations of the 28 items in Tables 3 - 6 ranged from 0.39 – 1.78 and are positive. This indicated that the respondents were not very far from the mean or one another in their responses. This helped to add value to the mean.

Ho

There is no significant difference in the mean ratings of male and female lecturers in college of Education Akwanga with regard to their job satisfaction.

Table-7. T-test of male and female lecturers in college of education Akwanga with regard to their job satisfaction (N=167).

Gender N SD DF t-cal Table t Decision
Male 117 35.43 0.32 808 1.96 2.02 Significant
Female 50 36.60 0.47

Table 7 shows that the table (t-value) is 2.02 at 808 degree of freedom and 0.05 level of significant. Since the calculated t-value of 1.96 is less than the table value of 2.02, the null hypothesis is accepted. Therefore, there was no significant difference between the mean ratings of male and female lecturers in college of education Akwanga with regards to their job satisfaction level.

4. Major Findings

(i) Salary/Wage payment decreases absenteeism and withdrawal from job. It also has effects on commitment, productivity and motivational desires on job satisfaction of lecturers in College of Education, Akwanga.

(ii) Salary/Wage payment decreases absenteeism and withdrawal from job. It also has effects on commitment, productivity and motivational desires on job satisfaction of lecturers in College of Education, Akwanga.

(iii) In College of Education, Akwanga, work environment affect lecturers job satisfaction in commitment, efficiency, psychological stress and facilities but does not necessary affect the lecturers’ motivation, interpersonal relationship and productivity.

(iv) Apart from “Fosters job commitment” job security has effects on dismissal from work, motivation, feeling of belonging, efficiency and laziness on job satisfaction of lecturers in College of Education, Akwanga.

(v) Autonomy affects commitment, motivation, feeling of belonging and efficiency but does not necessarily affect opportunity for growth and productivity on job satisfaction of lecturers in College of Education, Akwanga.

(vi) Excluding job retention, staff training affects efficiency in performance, quality and quantity of human resources, achievement of organizational goals, productivity, commitment, professional growth and motivation on job satisfaction of lecturers in College of Education, Akwanga.

(vii) There was no significant difference in the mean ratings of the male and female lecturers regarding their level of job satisfaction.

5. Discussion of Findings

The findings from the study that all the items accepted by the respondents in research question one are in agreement with Rosser (2012) who stated that attractive remuneration packages are one of the important factors of staff retention. Dissatisfaction with salaries/benefits is one of the key factors undermining the commitment of College of Education lecturers and consequently decision to leave their jobs. The findings that four items in research question 2 were accepted by the respondents are in agreement with Daly (2006) who suggested that working environment is also one of the factors that affect employee’s decision to stay with an organization. Productivity and efficiency are directly affected by how people work, and this equally is affected by their work environment/condition. Work environment that is comfortable, relatively low in physical / psychological stress and good facilities, attainment of goals in such workplace tends to give high level of job satisfaction. Increased workload is another stressful aspect of lecturer’s job. An increase workload caused by large number of students without proportionate increase in wages certainly has negative impact on the well being of College of Education Lecturers.

The findings of the study on the effect of job security are in agreement with that of Ukeje and Ugwuanyi (2011) in their study, “Effects of Job Insecurity on the Psychological Health of Company Workers-Implication for Colleges of Education Workers in Nigeria”. Their study revealed that there were strong relationships between job security and job satisfaction. The existence of job security is likely to boost employee’s perception of organizational support which would help to foster job satisfaction. The findings indicated that in most cases the employees in Colleges of Education (irrespective of sex, position and marital status), who perceived that they have uncertain futures in their jobs, felt threatened with manifested symptoms of psychological distress such as poor general health, anxiety and hopelessness.

The findings of this study on the effect of autonomy are in line with the findings of Adeyemi (2010) in a study “Job satisfaction among Technical Teachers in Ondo State Secondary Schools, that the autonomy of Colleges of Education tends to instill in the lecturers sense of belonging in the school activities. The lecturers believed that autonomy means bringing government closer to them in the college to reduce their burden of travelling long distances to the parent ministry. The autonomy is an important construct in Colleges of Education Lecturers’ value system. Lecturers in Colleges of Education tend to stay longer in their institutions when they feel that their capabilities, efforts, performance contributions are recognized and appreciated by government timely.

Findings of this study on the effect of staff training on College of Education Lecturers Job Satisfaction are in conformity with the findings of Alaku (2011) that training is considered a form of human capital investment whether that investment is made by the individual or by the firm. Training provides employees with specific skills to help correct deficiencies in staff performances. Development on the other hand is an effort to provide employees with skills the organization will need in the future. Staff retraining programme is therefore a necessary factor for lecturers’ optimal functioning. The findings of the study are also in agreement with that of Ombugus (2013) in a study “Improving Job Satisfaction of Primary School Teachers in Nasarawa State: Implication for the Universal Basic Education Programme” where there was no significant difference in the mean ratings of the male and female teachers on their job satisfaction level.

6. Conclusion

Consistency to job commitment and productivity; attainment of work goals; fulfillment of financial and motivational desires; provision of needed facilities; opportunity for growth and development and feeling of personal belonging among others are fundamental determinants of job satisfaction of lecturers in College of Education, Akwanga. Therefore, Colleges of Education Lecturers need adequate educational policy and administration in terms of the identified determinants for the lecturers to be satisfied in their job. When lecturers are meeting their basic needs in life such as food, clothing and healthcare, they perform optimally in workplace.

7. Recommendations

(i) The College Management should ensure that wages/benefits for Academic Staff are paid as at when due.

(ii) The working environment of lecturers should be made conducive for teaching and research work.

(iii) The College Management should provide job security and design a staff training plan for all categories of academic staff members.

References

  1. Adeyemi, B.A., 2010. Job satisfaction among technical teachers in ondo state secondary schools. Journal of Teacher Perspective (JOTEP) A Publication of Association of Nigerian Teachers (ASSONT), 10(1): 68 – 76.
  2. Agu, L.U., 2014. Job satisfaction factors of primary school teachers – A case study of Nasarawa State. Nigeria –Vocational Association Journal (NVAJ), 19(1): 117 – 127.
  3. Alaku, G.Y., 2011. Job satisfaction among metal work teachers in technical colleges in Nasarawa State. The Nigerian Teacher (TODAY). A Journal of Teacher Education Published by the National Commission for Colleges of Education, Abuja, 3(1): 30 – 39.
  4. Armstrong, M.A., 2012. Handbook of human resource management practice. London: Kogan Page Limited.
  5. Bender, K.A. and J.S. Heywood, 2012. Job satisfaction of the highly educated: The role of gender, academic tenure, and earnings. Scottish Journal of Political Economy, 53(2): 253 – 279. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher
  6. Chew, J.C., 2004. The influence of human resource management practices on the retention of core employees of australian organisations: Ph.D Thesis. Murdoch University.
  7. Daly, C.L., 2006. Greener pastures: Faculty turnover intent in urban public universities. Journal of Higher Education, 2(9): 1305 – 1313.
  8. Dockel, A., 2003. The effect of retention factors on organizational commitment: An Investigation of high technology employees. Master of Human Resource Thesis. University of Pretoria.
  9. Grunberg and Tapfield, 2009. An index of job satisfaction. Journal of Applied Pschology, 3(5): 307 – 311.
  10. Herzberg, U., 1989. The motivation to work. New York: John Willy and Sons Limited.
  11. Hulin, C., 2011. Alienation, environmental characteristics and workers responses. Journal of Applied Psychology, 5(1): 284 – 290.
  12. Locke, E.A. and G.P. Lathan, 2012. Theory of goal setting and task performance. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice – Hall. pp: 248 – 250.
  13. National Commission for Colleges of Education, 2012. Sensitization Workshop on the New NCE Minimum Standards and the use of Quality Assurance Toolkit for Institutional Self Assessment: Facilitor's Training Guide, TETF PROJECT.
  14. Obwogi, J., 2011. Factors that affect quality of teaching staff in Universites in Kenya. Ph.D Thesis. Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology.
  15. Okpara, J.O., 2004. Job satisfaction and organizational commitment: Are there differences between American and Nigerian managers employed in the US MNCs in Nigeria? Paper Presented at the Academy of Business and Administrative Sciences (ABAS) International Conference, Montreux, Switzerland.
  16. Ombugus, D.A., 2013. Improving job satisfaction of primary school teachers in Nasarawa State: Implication for the Universal Basic Education Programme. Nigeria Vocational Association Journal, 9(1): 147-155.
  17. Oshegbemi, T., 2010. Personal correlates of job satisfaction: Emperical evidence from UK Universities. International Journal of Social Economics, 30(12): 1210-1232. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher
  18. Rosser, V., 2012. Faculty members’ intentions to leave. A national study on their worklife and satisfaction. Research in Higher Education, 45(3): 285 -309. View at Google Scholar | View at Publisher
  19. Sambo, A.A., 2005. Research methods in education. Ibadan: Stirling –Horden Publishers. pp: 113 – 115.
  20. Tettey, J.W., 2008. Staff retention in African universities: Elements of a sustainable strategy. Washington, DC: World Bank.
  21. Ukeje, A.E. and C.L. Ugwuanyi, 2011. Effects of job insecurity on the psychological health of company workers-implications for colleges of education workers in Nigeria. Journal of Educational Leadership, 14(1): 50 – 56.
  22. Wells, J., 2011. Teacher responses to pay-for-performance policies. Survey results from four high-poverty. Urban School Districts, 45(2): 139 – 176.
Asian Online Journal Publishing Group is not responsible or answerable for any loss, damage or liability, etc. caused in relation to/arising out of the use of the content. Any queries should be directed to the corresponding author of the article.


About this article

Title

Determinants of Job Satisfaction of Colleges of Education Lecturers: A Study of Nasarawa State College of Education, Akwanga

Keywords

Determinants, College of education, Lecturers, Job satisfaction, Nasarawa state.

DOI

10.20448/journal.518.2017.21.8.13

Date

2017-04-26

Additional Links

Manuscript Submission

Journal

Asian Business Research Journal
Vol 2, No 1 (2017) Page: 8-13

Statistics

59 Views | Downloads

Citations

0

Authors & Affiliations

Rebecca I. Umaru
Doctor, (Language Art Education), Department of Art And Social Science Education, Faculty Of Education, Nasarawa State University Keffi
Nigeria

Danjuma A. Ombugus
Doctor, (Industrial Technical Education), Department of Technical Education, College of Education, Akwanga. Nasarawa State
Nigeria


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Paper Submission E-mail: info@asianonlinejournals.com; asianonlinejournals@gmail.com

 

Asian Business Research Journal

 

Copyright © Asian Online Journal Publishing Group

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add the 'asianonlinejournals.com' domain to your e-mail 'safe list'. If you do not receive e-mail in your 'inbox', check your 'bulk mail' or 'junk mail' folders.