Multi-Poverty and Deprivation in Chad: Multidimensional Approach Using the Fuzzy Set Theory
- Configuration of poverty, Decomposition by groups and attributes, Ecosit, Fuzzy poverty, Fuzzy set, Membership functions, Multidimensional poverty.
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The general objective of this paper is to analyze the configuration of poverty in Chad using a multidimensional approach, while previous work has for the most part favored the monetary or one-dimensional approach. The multidimensional approach adopted is based on the fuzzy-set also called the fuzzy set theory. To achieve this objective, multidimensional poverty indices are calculated by the formulations of membership functions called "totally fuzzy approach (TF)" by Cerioli and Zani. They are broken down according to the Camilo Dagum’s method. The data are the Household Budget and Consumption Surveys in 2003 (ECOSIT2) of 7,008 households and in 2011 (ECOSIT3) of 10,200 households. The results show that the multidimensional poverty index (fuzzy poverty index) is 48.47% in 2003 and increases unlike in 2011 to 58.89% while monetary poverty is 55% in 2003 and 46. 67% in 2011. In Chad, in all areas, poverty persists. The energy dimension is the one where we find more poor people followed in descending order of housing, sanitation and education. We recommend that the public authorities prioritize, within the framework of the fight against poverty, the electrification of all regions because energy contributes more than 90% to the construction of poverty in 2003 and 2011, etc.