Effectiveness of Encouragement Training in Alleviating Depression among Mothers of Children with Hearing Impairment

Mahbobe Karkhaneh

University of Social Welfare & Rehabilitation Sciences (USWR), Tehran, Iran

Guita Movallali

University of Social Welfare & Rehabilitation Sciences (USWR), Tehran, Iran

Mehdi Ali Mohammadi

Kharazmi University. Tehran, Iran

Zeinab Salehy

National University of Malaysia (UKM)

Keywords: Encouragement training, Mothers of children with hearing impaired, Depression.


Mothers of children with hearing impairment are highly vulnerable to psychological problems such as anxiety and depression. This study was done to assess depression in mothers of hearing impaired children and the effectiveness of encouragement training in alleviating depression in them. This study is an experimental, pre-test and post-test design with a control group. The population of this research consists of mothers of children with hearing impairment in Tehran city. Using random sampling, 40 mothers of children with hearing loss who were enrolled in the Centre, and scored 19 to 29 points (moderate depression to severe depression) in the Beck Depression Inventory, were selected randomly from Tehran rehabilitation centers and assigned randomly into two groups: 20 in the experimental group and 20 in the control group. The experimental group was given 10 sessions of group encouragement training (two sessions of 90 minutes a week). Symptoms of depression in both groups were evaluated before (pre-test) and after (post-test) of the intervention program. Research data were analyzed using covariance analysis method. Findings of the study indicated that group encouragement training program reduced the symptoms of depression in the experimental group more significantly (p > .01) than in the control group. Effectiveness of group encouragement training program in alleviating mother's depression needs more theoretical and practical implications. Therefore, it is necessary that in rehabilitation programs for children with hearing impairment, attention needs to be given to address the emotional dimensions of the family and the maternal psychological status, besides the usual services provided.


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