Social Exclusion of Farmers of Arid Areas

Uzooba Hureem

Staff-Sociologist at Punjab Economic Research Institute (PERI), Lahore, Pakistan

Zainab Butt

Lecturer at Government Degree College for Women, Mustafabad, Lahore, Pakistan


Keywords: Exclusion, Farm inputs, Yield, Productivity, GDP, Food insecurity, Arid area.


In the arid parts of Pakistan, the farmers are socially excluded owing to their lack of access to technology and unaffordability of farm inputs. Two thirds of Pakistan is arid and dependent on rain. Irregular patterns of rainfall also play havoc with agricultural productivity and ultimately affects GDP & food security. The purpose of this research was to observe the existence of social exclusion of the small farmers from different dimensions and to study their neutral relationship. Case studies of 15 farmers were conducted to get information about social exclusion from different dimensions and their relationship. Analysis of the data supports the hypothesis of farmers’ social exclusion along a host of dimensions such as education, infrastructure and technological access. The extent of social exclusion is significantly more in the case of farmers living in disadvantaged areas. Most of the farmers do not have enough means to enhance their yield; lack of education, lack of access to adequate water resources and unawareness about modern technologies which is the major contributor to their exclusion.


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