Vol 8 No 2 (2021)

Inclusion of Students with Disabilities in Egypt: Challenges and Recommendations

Ayman Elhadi
Associate Professor, College of Education- Special Education Department, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Alkharj, Saudi Arabia.
Published April 15, 2021
318 Views | 176 Downloads
  • Inclusion, Students with disabilities, Egypt, Challenges, Training, Professional development.
How to Cite
Elhadi, A. (2021). Inclusion of Students with Disabilities in Egypt: Challenges and Recommendations. Journal of Education and E-Learning Research, 8(2), 173-178. https://doi.org/10.20448/journal.509.2021.82.173.178


The study aimed to examine challenges to the inclusion of Students with Disabilities (PWDs) in mainstream education in Egypt. A mixed method approach was used to collect data from various sources. First, statistical information was retrieved from the Ministry of Education (MoE). Secondly, Ministerial Decrees were examined. Thirdly, semi-structured interviews with specialists in the field of special education in Egypt (N=12) were conducted to explore the major issues that emerged from this study. Results revealed challenges facing the inclusion of PWDs in Egypt, such as a lack of in- & pre-service training of teachers, limitations of construction and preparation, lack of coordination among ministries, limited programs for students with certain disabilities, and lack of awareness in the community and the family. The study concluded that the successful inclusion of PWDs in mainstream schools in Egypt requires, first, that universities consider inclusive education when training special education teachers; secondly, that professional development of teachers on inclusive education requirements is conducted, new policies are adopted, and school facilities are constructed with the needs of PWDs in mind; and thirdly, that the inclusion of PWDs not be limited to individuals with certain disabilities but must include students regardless of their type of disability.


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